Marco’s Grounds Ultimate Nootropics Guide

July 12, 2021

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Here at Marco’s Grounds, we focus on manufacturing dietary supplements that support cognitive functions like the speed of thought, focus, memory, and flow states. In short, we specialize in manufacturing different types of nootropics that can be used to enhance mental performance. Throughout our ultimate nootropics guide, we’ll be diving into different types of nootropics and how they work to improve mental performance optimization and health preservation.

As mentioned, nootropics can help increase your memory, boost learning ability, improve your mood and assist overall brain function. If you’re new to nootropics, then this post is for you.

While this piece is informative, we want to clarify that it shouldn’t be considered complete. If you would like to learn more about nootropics, we encourage you to contact us here.

All of the nootropics are organized by category:

  • Racetams (and closely-related nootropics)
  • Eugeroics
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Cholinergic
  • Precursors
  • Misc/other.
  • Vitamins with Neuroprotective Properties

“Good is the enemy of great. And that is one of the key reasons why we have so little that becomes great. We don’t have great schools, principally because we have good schools. We don’t have great government, principally because we have good government. Few people attain great lives, in large part because it is just so easy to settle for a good life.
―Jim Collins

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Racetams (and closely-related nootropics)

“The pessimist sees difficulty in every opportunity. The optimist sees opportunity in every difficulty. ”
—Winston Churchill

Racetams are a class of synthetic drugs that are all chemically similar. They all have a pyrrolidone nucleus. All of their names end in -am—several, but not all end in -tam or -team.

Piracetam, the first racetam ever created, was developed by a Romanian psychologist named Corneliu Giurgea, who coined the term “nootropic” in the 1960s.

While some racetams have been researched for decades, newer ones haven’t undergone scientific testing. Generally speaking, the racetams that have been extensively researched are tolerated well in people with little to no side effects.

Some supplements like choline may enhance racetam effectiveness and decrease any potential side effects.

At the same time, other nootropics, like noopept and sunifiram, for example, are not technically
racetams. However, they were developed from racetams and share similar qualities, so they’ll be included in this guide.



Other Names: Dragon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan, N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, Ro 13-5057, 1-p-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, 1(4-methoxybenzoyl)-2-pyrrolidinone

Benefits: Reduced anxiety, improved mood, focus, memory, and learning.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Generally well-tolerated, side effects are rare and may include headaches, nausea, gastrointestinal distress, and dizziness.

Dosage: 1,000-1,500 milligrams a day, in 2 divided doses.

Synergies With Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, other racetams.


Other Names: BCI-540, MKC-231, 2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)-N-(2,3-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofuran 2,
3-b quinolin-4-yl)acetamide

Benefits: Better mood, lower symptoms of anxiety, improved memory function, and learning abilities.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Although limited studies have shown this is generally safe, it hasn’t been extensively studied yet. Side effects may be similar to other racetams and can include: headaches, nausea, upset stomach, and dizziness.

Dosage: 5-50 milligrams, up to 3 times a day. One study showed no serious side effects with 80 mg three times a day.

Synergies With Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, Noopept, alongside other racetams.


Other Names: NS-105, LAM-105, 5-oxo-D-prolinepiperidinamide monohydrate

Benefits: Decreased anxiety, improved motivation, and cognitive functioning.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Within limited studies, it’s been shown that taking up to 100 milligrams is safe. Side-effects may resemble those of other racetams.

Dosage: Although there are no established guidelines for dosage, most people experience good results with 10-30 mg a day.

Synergies With: Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, other racetams.



Other Names: DM-9384, N-(2, 6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxopyrrolidine-1-yl)-acetamide

Benefits: Overall cognitive enhancement, improved memory, possibly similar to other racetams.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Studies of long-term consumption in humans and primates have shown it to have no toxicity. Side-effects may be similar to other racetams.

Dosage: 150-450 milligrams daily, split into 2 or 3 doses. It does not seem to provide cognitive improvement after one dose, so it needs to be taken continuously for several days to notice any improvement.

Synergies With: Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, other racetams.


Other Names: N-phenyl acetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester, Noopeptide, GVS-111

Benefits: Potentially a mild stimulating effect, an increase in focus, memory, and motivation. Possible to recognize improvement in mood and decreased anxiety.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Although it’s generally well tolerated when taken at the recommended dosage, symptoms of overdose may include: headache, insomnia, fatigue, nausea, gastrointestinal problems.

Some side effects may be decreased by taking noopept with a choline source in addition.

Dosage: 10-30 milligrams, taken 1 to 3 times a day.

Synergies With: Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, racetams, sulbutiamine


Other Names: 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-pyrrolidinoacetamide, ISF-2522

Benefits: Improved focus, logical thinking, improved memory, and learning abilities.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Generally well-tolerated, but side effects may include: headache, insomnia, fatigue, dizziness, nausea, irritability, and gastrointestinal distress.

Note: Carbamazepine shouldn’t be taken with oxiracetam due to potential negative interaction.

Dosage: 1,200-2,400 milligrams a day, in 2-3 divided doses.

Synergies With: Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, other racetams


Other Names: Phenotropil, Carphedon, (RS)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide

Benefits: Improves alertness, focus, mood, memory, motivation, and physical performance.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Extensively studied and generally considered safe. Side effects are uncommon and may include: headache, insomnia, nausea, irritability, nervousness, gastrointestinal distress.

Note: Phenylpiracetam is on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA) banned substance list. If you’re participating in a competitive sport that tests for PED (performance-enhancing drugs), refrain from use.

Dosage: 1-200 milligrams, 2-3 times a day.

Synergies With: Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, other racetams, eugeroics.


Other Names: Nootropil, Lucetam, 2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide

Benefits: Improves memory function, supports mood, motivation, learning abilities, and reduces anxiety symptoms.

Side-Effects/Warnings: While it’s generally very well-tolerated, side effects may include: headaches, nausea, insomnia, irritability, agitation, and tremors.

Dosage: 1,200-4,800 milligrams a day, divided between 2-3 doses.

Synergies With: Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, other racetams



Other Names: Remen, Pramistar, Neupramir, Cl-879,

Benefits: Better memory, learning abilities, and focus enhanced logical thinking.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Generally well-tolerated, side effects are rare and may include: headache, nausea, gastrointestinal distress, and irritability.

Dosage: 1,200 milligrams a day, in 2-3 divided doses.

Synergies With: Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, other racetams.


Other Names: DM-235

Benefits: Improved memory and cognitive functioning, as well as better mood, decisiveness, focus, and alertness.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Has yet to undergo clinical trials. Most users don’t report serious side effects, while others report feeling overstimulated, anxious, and unable to sleep at high dosages.

Dosage: 5-10 milligrams, up to 3 times a day.

Synergies With: Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, racetams, noopept.


Other Names: DM-232, (8aR)-2-[(4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl]hexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazin-6{2H)-one

Benefits: Limited research. Users report powerful cognition-enhancing effects.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Has not undergone clinical safety testing. It probably has a similar side-effect profile to racetams. Users have reported no serious side effects.

Dosage: 16-32 milligrams, 2-3 times a day.

Synergies With: Alpha-GPCCDP-Cholineuridine, racetams.



“Don’t let yesterday take up too much of today.”
—Will Rogers

Cholinergic is a large family of compounds that have been known to increase the level of choline or acetylcholine in the brain. They may do this by either increasing the level of choline in the body directly or indirectly by inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine.

• Choline is a water-soluble nutrient that usually gets grouped with B-vitamins. It is a precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

• Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that has several essential functions in the brain and body. It plays a critical role in memory, learning, muscle activation, REM sleep, attention, motivation, and several other aspects of functioning.

Over time, taking cholinergic alone can improve learning, memory, and overall cognitive performance. However, they’re usually taken to increase the effectiveness of other nootropics or to diminish side effects.

For example, the cholinergic compound Alpha-GPC is commonly taken with racetams
nootropics, like piracetam and aniracetam. Many users have noticed an increase in the effectiveness of both drugs while reducing specific side effects, like headaches and brain fog.

It’s currently believed that taking a choline supplement with certain racetams can increase their effectiveness, but additional studies need to be conducted to support these claims.

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Other Names: L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine, Choline Alfoscerate, Glycerophosphocholine, LAlpha Glycerophosphocholin

Benefits: Better memory function, learning abilities, and overall cognitive performance. It may be beneficial to people with Alzheimer’s Disease, stroke, and dementia or prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer’s Disease, stroke, and dementia.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Known to be very safe when used at the recommended dosage, side effects are infrequent and may include: headaches, insomnia, dizziness, rash, and confusion.

Dosage: The regular dosage is between 300-600 milligrams for nootropic benefits. Several studies have used a dosage of 1,200 mg in 3 divided doses to treat Alzheimer’s, stroke, and dementia.

Synergies With: Most other nootropics, specifically racetams.

Visit the Alpha-GPC page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.


Other Names: Meclofenoxate, Lucidril, Centro

Benefits: Increased memory and learning abilities, as well as overall cognitive performance.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Generally safe; side effects are uncommon but may include: nausea, dizziness.

Dosage: The standard dosage is 250 milligrams and should be taken 1-3 times a day.

Synergies With: Racetams and most other nootropics.

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Other Names: Cytidine Diphosphate-Choline, cytidine 5′-phosphocholine, Citicholine, CDPC,
Citicoline, Cytidine Diphosphocholine, CDP-Choline

Benefits: Improves memory, learning, attention, and overall cognitive performance. It may be helpful in the treatment of certain addictions, treating or delaying Alzheimer’s Disease, vision loss, and Parkinson’s Disease.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Very safe at recommended dosages, side effects are extremely rare and may include: insomnia, headache, diarrhea, nausea, blurred vision.

Dosage: Conventional dosage is between 500-2,000 milligrams per day, typically in 2 separate doses. Taking dosages above 2,000 mg/day does not seem to increase choline levels any higher.

Synergies With: Racetams and most other nootropics.

Visit the Citicoline page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

Choline Bitartrate

Other Names: Choline, Trimethylethanolamine

Benefits: Increased cognitive performance, including memory and learning abilities.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Overall well-tolerated. Side effects are uncommon but may include: headache, dizziness, nausea, and insomnia.

Note: It may have an additive effect if taken with beta-blockers.

Dosage: Standard dosages vary but are typically taken at 250-500 milligrams per day.

Synergies With: Racetams and most other nootropics.


Other Names: Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine

Benefits: Increased cognitive performance, including memory and learning abilities. They are commonly used in treating dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Side effects are uncommon but may include: diarrhea, dizziness, nausea or vomiting, insomnia, drowsiness, changes in appetite, weight loss.
Dosage: Usually taken in 1-2 doses; 8-16 milligrams per day.

Synergies With: Racetams and most other nootropics.

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Huperzine A

Other Names: Huperzia Serrata, Qian Ceng Ta, (1R, 9S, 13E)-1-amino-13-ethylidene-11-methyl-6-azatricyclo-, 7 trideca-2(7), 3, 10-trien-5-on

Benefits: Improved cognitive performance, including memory and learning abilities.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Side effects are uncommon and may include diarrhea, dizziness, nausea or vomiting, insomnia, drowsiness, changes in appetite, weight loss, and headaches.

Dosage: Between 50-200 micrograms (mcg), once per day, can be taken on an empty stomach. Many people prefer to use it in cycles, 2-4 weeks, followed by 2-4 weeks off.

Synergies With: Racetams and most other nootropics.

Visit the Huperzine A page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.



“Experience is a hard teacher because she gives the test first, the lesson afterward.”
―Vernon Sanders 

Eugeroics are known for promoting wakefulness. Not only have these drugs been successful in helping people focus, but many users report that the drugs make them more alert, productive, and motivated. These popular drugs are often used in treating narcolepsy, sleep issues, amongst others.


Other Names: Nuvigil, Artvigil, Armod, Neoresotyl, Waklert

Benefits: Prescribed for daytime sleepiness, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea. Used off-label for ADHD, chronic fatigue syndrome, and depression. Nootropic benefits include increased wakefulness, alertness, attention, motivation, and mood.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Only available with a prescription in the U.S. It’s generally well-tolerated, but side effects may include: dizziness, nausea or vomiting, insomnia, dry mouth, and headaches.

Dosage: Usual dosage is 150-250 milligrams a day.

Synergies With: Racetams, cholinergic.


Other Names: Provigil, Modavigil, Alertec, Modapro, Alerts, 2-[(diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl]acetamide

Benefits: They help treat narcolepsy and other sleep conditions, as the benefits include alertness, motivation, and overall cognitive performance.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Requires a prescription in most jurisdictions. Side effects can be mild and may include: dizziness, nausea, insomnia, increased anxiety or nervousness, headaches. It may also decrease the effectiveness of birth control.

Dosage: Standard dosage is between 100-300 milligrams per day.

Synergies With: Cholinergic, racetams.



“To know how much there is to know is the beginning of learning to live.”

The words “nutrition and “pharmaceutical” make up the term “Nutraceuticals,” which is often used to describe nootropics that derive from herbal products, nutrients, as well as dietary supplements.

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Other Names: Withania somnifera, Indian ginseng, poison gooseberry, winter cherry, Solanaceae, Dunal, Smell of Horse

Benefits: Reduced anxiety symptoms (specifically social anxiety), stress, improved mood, motivation, and decreased fatigue.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Typically well tolerated. While side effects are uncommon, they may include: diarrhea or stomach issues, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and headaches.

Dosage: The lowest dosage for effectiveness is typically between 200-400 milligrams. The optimal dosage is 500 mg a day for many people, in 2 to 3 divided doses, preferably with meals.

Synergies With: Racetams, cholinergic, eugeroics.

Visit the Ashwagandha page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

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Bacopa Monnieri

Other Names: Brahmi, Andri, Lysimachia Monnieri L. Cent., Graticola Monnieri L., Water Hyssop, Jalabrahmi, Indian Pennywort, Thyme-Leafed Gratiola, Herpestes Monniera L.

Benefits: Better memory, decreased anxiety, improved mood, and attention span.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Typically well-tolerated, but side effects may include: nausea, upset stomach, headaches.

Dosage: Standard dosage is 300 milligrams, using a 50% extract. There’s more to it if you want to get into the ultra-precise. Besides, the active ingredients come in different ranges and ratios. Ratios of 1:1 Bacosides I to IX look like they are the most effective at producing the desired benefits.

Synergies With: Racetams, Cholinergic.

Visit the Bacopa Monnieri page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

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Ginkgo Biloba

Other Names: Ginkgo, Maidenhair Tree, Tanakan, Tebonin, Rokan

Benefits: General cognitive enhancement, as well as improved memory and blood circulation.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Mild side effects can include: upset stomach or constipation, headache, dizziness, rapid heartbeat, and increased risk of bleeding.

Note: May suppress CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 enzymes.

Dosage: For cognitive enhancement, take 120-240 milligrams 2-4 hours before the performance. To alleviate cognitive decline, take 40-120 mg up to 3 times a day.

Synergies With: Racetams, cholinergic.

Visit the Ginkgo Biloba page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.


Other Names: Panax Ginseng, Korean Ginseng, Panax, True Ginseng, Mountain Ginseng, Wild Ginseng

Benefits: Improved mood, immune functioning, and cognitive performance. It has the potential to improve libido, testosterone, and athletic performance.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Generally considered safe, but side effects can include: headaches, diarrhea, nausea, nose bleeds, higher or lower blood pressure. Ginseng has been shown to have adverse drug reactions with phenelzine and warfarin and lower blood alcohol levels. Lamotrigine has also been reported to have a potential adverse effect.

Dosage: Panax ginseng is typically taken at 200-400 milligrams per day, while Korean ginseng can be taken at 500-1,000 mg per day.

Synergies With: Racetams, Noopept, Cholinergic.

Mucuna Pruriens

Other Names: Velvet Bean, Bengal Velvet Bean, Florida Velvet Bean, Mauritius Velvet Bean,
Yokohama Velvet Bean, Cowage, Cowitch, Lacuna Bean, Lyon Bean, Werepe, Karara, Agbara

Benefits: Better mood & overall well-being, decreased anxiety, higher dopamine, potentially increased testosterone, and human growth hormone (HGH).

Side-Effects/Warnings: Can be safe even in high dosages. Since it contains L-Dopa, it is possible to have side effects of levodopa. Most of the time, however, mucuna pruriens is better tolerated than L-Dopa. It is recommended not to be taken with L-Dopa or MAOIs.

Dosage: Standard dosage is 250 milligrams, twice a day to start. Some of the benefits can take several weeks to recognize. Dosage can be increased every 4-7 days, up to 750 mg at a time and 6,000 mg a day.

Synergies With: Racetams, cholinergic.


Rhodiola Rosea

Other Names: Golden root, roseroot, Aaron’s rod, Arctic root, king’s crown, Rosavin, orpin rose

Benefits: Physical and mental performance are improved, decreased symptoms of anxiety, better mood.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Generally considered to be safe.

Dosage: 250-1,000 milligrams taken daily, in 1-2 dosages.

Synergies With: Most other nootropics, racetams, eugeroics, and other adaptogens.



“Concentrate all your thoughts upon the work in hand. The sun’s rays do not burn until brought to a focus.”
—Alexander Graham Bell

A precursor is a chemical compound that is created through a chemical reaction. These compounds are then used by our bodies to make neurotransmitters.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays many roles; it helps us feel pleasure and motivation and keeps our energy up throughout the day. A precursor to dopamine is levodopa, which creates dopamine; when a person takes levodopa, dopamine production increases.

Below you will find a list of amino acids, which you can find in regular, day-to-day foods. To receive a nootropic effect, however, a larger quantity needs to be consumed.

While precursors are not generally thought of as nootropics, supplementing with them can have
cognition-enhancing (nootropic) benefits.


Precursor Of: Serotonin

Other Names: 5-Hydroxytryptophan, oxitriptan

Benefits: Improved mood, reduced anxiety, more restful sleep, increased feelings of well-being

Side-Effects/Warnings: Side effects are rare but may include: headache, upset stomach, heartburn.

Note: 5-HTP should be used cautiously if also taking antidepressants, specifically MAOIs.

Dosage: 50-300 milligrams, 1-3 times per day.

Synergies With: Racetams, cholinergic, L-tyrosine, mucuna pruriens, EGCG

D, L – Phenylalanine

Precursor Of: Tyrosine, L-dopa, dopamine, and noradrenaline

Other Names: DLPA, DL-Phenylalanine, phenylalanine

Benefits: Higher energy, improved concentration, focus, motivation, and lower pain.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Safe for most people but should be used cautiously if taking other dopaminergic drugs. People with phenylketonuria (PKU) should not take it.

Dosage: 1,000-2,000 milligrams a day, in 1-3 dosages.

Synergies With: 5-HTP, racetams, cholinergic.


Precursor Of: 5-HTP and serotonin

Other Names: Tryptophan, (2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid, L-triptofano, L-trypt, Ltryptophane

Benefits: Better mood and improved sleep, a greater sense of well-being, reduced anxiety.

Side-Effects/Warnings: It’s generally considered safe but can cause: heartburn, upset stomach, nausea, gastrointestinal issues or diarrhea, headache, drowsiness, dry mouth, visual blurring, and loss of appetite.

Note: It should be used with caution in people taking antidepressants, specifically MAOIs. May also increase the effectiveness of certain sedatives.

Dosage: 1,000-3,000 milligrams (1-3 grams) a day, in two or three doses.

Synergies With: Racetams, cholinergic, L-tyrosine, D-L-phenylalanine

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Precursor Of: L-dopa, dopamine, and noradrenaline

Other Names: 4-hydroxyphenylalanine

Benefits: Increased motivation, energy, and focus.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Generally recognized as safe. Side effects can include upset stomach, nausea, headache, and insomnia. People taking other dopaminergic should take it with caution.

Dosage: 500-2,000 milligrams a day, in one to three doses.

Synergies With: Racetams, cholinergic, 5-HTP, EGCG

Visit the L-tyrosine page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

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“I’m a greater believer in luck, and I find the harder I work, the more I have of it.”
—Thomas Jefferson

Here you can find all the other substances that have plenty of nootropic properties. While some of the following aren’t always considered to be nootropics, they all enhance cognition in one way or another.

Acetyl L-Carnitine (ALCAR)

Other Names: ALCAR, Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Acetylcarnitine, L-Carnitine, L-Carnitine-L-Tartrate,
LCLT, Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine, GPLC, Levocarnitine, Levacecarnine, L-3-

Benefits: Accelerated learning, increased perception, as well as improved concentration and memory.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Overall, very safe at suggested dosages. Large amounts may result in an upset stomach, headache, and nausea.

Dosage: 500-1,000 milligrams, taken one or two times daily.

Synergies With: Racetams, cholinergic, and eugeroics.

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Other Names: Coffee extract, tea extract, 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, anhydrous caffeine, cafeina,
trimethylxanthine, 1,3,7-Trimethyl-1h-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione

Benefits: Heightened vigilance and alertness, possibly enhanced focus, motivation, and mood.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when taken at approved dosages. Side effects may include: insomnia, nervousness, restlessness, upset stomach, nausea, vomiting, and rapid heart rate

Note: May increase the effects of other stimulants, as well as becoming a habit over time.

Dosage: 50-600 milligrams a day, in one to four doses. If taken later in the day, it can increase the potential for insomnia.

Synergies With: L-theanine, racetams, cholinergic, adaptogens.

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Lion’s Mane

Other Names: Hericium Erinaceus, Yamabushitake, Lion’s Mane, Monkey’s head, Houtou (infrequent), Igelstachelbart, Pom Pom Blanc, Hedgehog Mushroom, Satyr’s beard.

Benefits: Neuroprotection, neuroregeneration, neurogenesis.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Normally considered highly safe. At suggested dosages, side effects are uncommon.

Dosage: 500-2000 milligrams a day, in one to three doses.

Synergies With: Racetams, cholinergic, caffeine, L-theanine

Visit the Lion’s Mane page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

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Other Names: Theanine, N-Ethyl-L-Glutamine, 2-Amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl), Butyric Acid, 5-N-EthylGlutamine

Benefits: Decreased anxiety. Increases effects as well as reduce side-effects of caffeine.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Normally considered highly safe. At suggested dosages, side effects are uncommon.

Dosage: 100-600 milligrams a day, in one to three doses. It is generally taken with caffeine.

Synergies With: Caffeine, racetams, cholinergic.

Visit the L-theanine page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Other Names: Eicosapentaenoic Acid, EPA, Docosahexaenoic Acid, DHA, Omega 3’s, N-3 Fatty Acids, Flaxseed, O3’s

Benefits: Overall improvement of mental and physical health.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Most people do not have any side effects or problems. Although uncommon, side effects can include: heartburn, bad breath, nausea, belching, nosebleeds, and diarrhea.

Note: Possible increase of the effectiveness of anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs.

Dosage: 1,000-4,000 milligrams (1-4 grams) per day in one to three doses. Consuming with food can reduce specific side effects.

Synergies With: Everything.


Other Names: Arcalion, Enercon, Bisibuthiamine, Youvitan

Benefits: A positive effect of enhanced memory and mood, lowered anxiety, and increased stamina.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Typically well-tolerated; side effects are uncommon but may include: anxiety, irritability, depression, headaches, nausea, and skin rash.

Dosage: 500-1,000 milligrams a day, in one or two doses.

Synergies With: Cholinergic, racetams, eugeroics.

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Other Names: L-Taurine

Benefits: Supports brain function, supports cognitive function, supports mood, supports antioxidant defenses, supports cardiovascular function, functions as permeation enhancer

Side-Effects/Warnings: Typically well-tolerated; side effects are uncommon.

Dosage: 200-5000 milligrams a day, in one or two doses.

Synergies With: Cholinergic, racetams, eugeroics.

Visit the Taurine page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

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Other Names: UDP, UMP, uridine monophosphate

Benefits: Improved cognitive performance.

Side Effects/Warnings: Typically safe when taken at the suggested dosage.

Dosage: 500-1,000 milligrams a day, in one or two doses.

Synergies With: Cholinergic, racetams, eugeroics, omega-3’s.

Visit the Uridine page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.


Other Names: Vincamine, Vinca Minor, Periwinkle Extract, Cavinton, ethyl-apovincaminate, Intellectual

Benefits: Enhanced learning and memory, neuroprotection, and countless physical benefits.

Side-Effects/Warnings: Normally considered highly safe if taken at recommended dosages. Exceeding the suggested dosage may cause an upset stomach, nausea, and headache.

Dosage: 10-60 milligrams a day, in one to three doses.

Synergies With: Cholinergic, racetams, eugeroics.


Vitamins with Neuroprotective Properties

“Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.”
― Leonardo da Vinci

Methylated Vitamin B5

With all B vitamins, the methylation increases the bioavailability of the compounds. Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) plays a crucial role in the formation of Coenzyme A that in turn supports many enzymes in our body.

The recommended daily dosage is 5 mg, which you can quickly get from food.

Visit the B Vitamins page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

Methylated Vitamin B6

With all B vitamins, the methylation increases the bioavailability of the compounds. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is another vitamin that plays a vital role in the production of coenzyme A. Another critical function of B6 is to help with the absorption of Vitamin B12.

The recommended daily dosage is up to 100 mg.

Visit the B Vitamins page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

Methylated Vitamin B9

With all B vitamins, the methylation increases the bioavailability of the compounds. Vitamin B9 (Folate) is an essential B vitamin that supports our general health. It supports the production of SAMe, which is why there is some evidence that supplementing B9 can decrease depression.

The recommended daily dosage is up to 400 mcg.

Visit the B Vitamins page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

Methylated Vitamin B12

With all B vitamins, the methylation increases the bioavailability of the compounds. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is an essential vitamin that plays a crucial role in neurology. It is also necessary for converting carbohydrates into glucose.

Studies show that if you experience brain fog, have memory issues, fatigue, lack energy, are depressed, then there is a chance you lack Vitamin B12.

The recommended weekly dosage is around 1000 mcg.

Visit the B Vitamins page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

beautiful-happy-woman-sun-with-ultimate nootropics guide-at-MARCO'S-GROUNDS-WEB

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is an essential vitamin that we synthesize when exposed to the sun. Supplementing D vitamin is associated with better cognition, mental health, bone health, and overall well-being.

The recommended daily dosage is 1000 – 2000 IU.

Visit the Vitamin D page on the Marco’s Grounds Deep Dive.

Concluding Thoughts

It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and happened to things.”
―Leonardo da Vinci

Every single compound discussed comes with drawbacks, and increasing dosage to increase effect will only increase the magnitude and severity of those drawbacks. Hence the best impact can only be produced when combining compounds in a way that maximizes synergies and effect while keeping doses on the safe side of the optimal Dose-Dependent Range (see Marco’s Grounds Dosing Principles).

This produces a vastly superior formulation to anything else currently available and certainly far more significant than maximizing the use of one single ingredient or a couple of compounds only.

The best cognitive enhancer benefits are to be achieved with a universal mental and mind-enhancing complex: boosting the entire brain to enhance all types of cognition, for flexible brain horsepower that supports what you need, when you need it – an invaluable benefit for those who lead busy lives with varied cognitive demands and activities. MAXIMUM MIND, as a universal cognitive and mind-enhancing complex, optimizes the whole brain to unlock peak-performing cognition for everyone.


Clinically Studied

Pharmaceutical Grade Cognitive and Mind Enhancing Complex
Made in Switzerland

About the Author


The materials and information provided in this post, document and/or any other communication (“Communication”) from Marco’s Grounds LLC. or any related entity or person (collectively “Marco’s Grounds”) are strictly for informational purposes only and are not intended for use as diagnosis, prevention or treatment of a health problem or as a substitute for consulting a qualified medical professional. Some of the concepts presented herein may be theoretical.

References to any non-Marco’s Grounds entity, product, service, person or source of information in this or any other Communication should not be considered an endorsement, either direct or implied, by the host, presenter or distributor of the Communication. The host(s), presenter(s) and/or distributor(s) of this Communication are not responsible for the content of any non-Marco’s Grounds internet pages referenced in the Communication. Marco’s Grounds is not liable or responsible for any advice, course of treatment, diagnosis or any other information or services you chose to follow without consulting a qualified medical professional. Before starting any new diet and/or exercise program, always be sure to check with your qualified medical professional.

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