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Alpha-GPC has been shown to dramatically increase brain energy with links to memory formation, learning capacity, and mental focus.

Alpha-GPC is a phospholipid that rapidly transports choline across the blood-brain barrier after ingestion and serves as a biosynthetic precursor for acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter. Due to its ability to directly boost acetylcholine levels, several studies have confirmed Alpha-GPC effectiveness in protecting the brain from age-related cognitive decline as well as increasing brain energy.

Several studies have shown that L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC) increases brain output in healthy adults as well as memory formation and learning capacity.


Other Common Names

Alpha-GPC, Glycerophosphocholine, Choline Alphoscerate, L-Alpha Glycerophosphocholine.

What Is Alpha-GPC?

Alpha-GPC is choline containing a phospholipid that can be used to augment the body and brain choline pool. In this role, it serves as a precursor for both acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Alpha-GPC and citicoline, i.e., CDP-choline, are considered the nootropic forms of choline, with both forms able to increase brain choline levels, act as building blocks for acetylcholine, and support choline-dependent neurotransmission [1–4]. However, of the two, Alpha-GPC contains a higher proportion of choline, so a lower dose of Alpha-GPC gives greater choline support than a similar dose of citicoline [5–7]. This means that by weight Alpha-GPC is the more effective choline precursor. Following an oral dose, Alpha-GPC metabolizes into choline and the phospholipid glycerophosphate. The choline can be used for acetylcholine synthesis and neurotransmission [3, 8–14]. Acetylcholine is central to brain neurotransmission; it’s also used in both the fight or flight and rest and relax parts of the autonomic nervous system, and it is a signaling molecule for activating muscles. Because Alpha-GPC is a precursor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, it plays a supportive role in a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, concentration, mental focus, and memory formation and recall [15]. Alpha-GPC also supports aspects of muscle performance and is involved in maintaining organs and tissues. Because Alpha-GPC can be readily metabolized into phosphatidylcholine, it can be used to support the structure and function of cell membranes. Alpha-GPC is found in low amounts in a variety of foods [16] and breast milk [17, 18]. Alpha-GPC is contained in many foods, such as oats, milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. However, the dosages are extremely far from the ones used in clinical studies.

Alpha-GPC energizes and enhances mental performance without the crash of stimulants. Alpha-GPC has been shown in human research to promote mood balance, memory, attention, focus, and concentration [19]. Long-term, it may help maintain healthy brain function against age-related structural changes and mental decline. Maximum Mind Alpha-GPC is working as a choline donor form with benefits for brain energy, mental performance, and recall backed by multiple human clinical trials [20-22].

Alpha-GPC has been shown to boost brain cell membrane formation by 26% and brain energy by 13.6% [23]

Marco’s Grounds Alpha-GPC Sourcing

Alpha-GPC is a source of choline; it can influence both systemic and brain concentrations of choline.

Alpha-GPC is derived from soy. Marco’s Grounds uses full-spectrum Alpha-GPC that is sourced from organic, non-GMO, gluten-free, vegan, family-owned farms in the United States of America. Marco’s Grounds Alpha-GPC is extracted at purity standards of 99% +/- 0.5%.


Alpha-GPC Dosing Philosophy and Rationale

Alpha-GPC is by weight one of the best sources of choline. While Alpha-GPC is often treated as if it’s dose-dependent, i.e., a higher dose is better. Doses of 1200 mg/day have been used in some clinical studies [23], Marco’s Grounds believes the evidence suggests a threshold response (see Marco’s Grounds Dosing Philosophy) when Alpha-GPC is given to healthy people. This means that more might not be better under all circumstances. As an example, in a study of healthy college-aged men, while the higher dose (500 mg/day) of Alpha-GPC did a better job increasing free choline levels, the lower dose (250 mg/day) produced a better peak muscle force response [24]. In general, Marco’s Grounds experience with Alpha-GPC (as well as citicoline) indicates that when used as part of comprehensive nootropic formulations, a more modest dose is often sufficient. Alpha-GPC is a useful choline source in liquids because of its taste and solubility. In general, the best time to take Alpha-GPC is early in the day.


Alpha-GPC Key Mechanisms

Augments Choline Pool

Alpha-GPC is part of the CDP-choline (or Kennedy) pathway, which has a central role in choline homeostasis [13, 14]

Supports plasma choline levels [25]

Precursor for phosphatidylcholine synthesis [3]

Precursor for acetylcholine synthesis [2, 3]

Brain Function

Supports memory and learning [7, 32,40]

Supports attention [7, 40]

Supports cognition [2, 3, 15, 40, 41]

Supports acetylcholine synthesis and release [2, 3, 26]

Supports vesicular acetylcholine transporter levels [26, 27]

Supports high-affinity choline uptake transporter levels [27]

Protects from age-related changes in cholinergic neurotransmission [28]

Supports dopamine synthesis and release [1, 29]

Supports dopamine plasma membrane transporter (DAT) levels [29]

Supports serotonin synthesis [29]

Supports GABA release [30]

Supports phospholipid synthesis [9, 31]

Supports phosphoinositide synthesis [31, 32]

Supports protein kinase C (PKC) activation [33, 34]

Supports growth hormone secretion from the pituitary gland [10, 25, 35]

Counters some age-related brain microstructural changes [36–39]

Supports neuroprotective functions [2, 3]

Exercise Performance

Supports isometric force production [42]

Supports maximum power and velocity in jump movements [24]


Citicoline, Uridine Monophosphate, Huperzine A, Bacopa Monnieri, Celastrus Paniculatus, Coleus Forskohlii, Vitamin B5 in supporting cholinergic neurotransmission.


Side Effects

Alpha-GPC side effects are few, rare, and mostly positive. Studies suggest one side effect of Alpha-GPC is increased power output [43], which shows the compound can improve physical strength and vitality as well as mental characteristics.

Other studies observed no adverse effect level with a dosage twice as high as Maximum Mind calibration in persons raging from 50 to 75 kilograms [44].


Alpha-GPC Deep Dive

Marco’s Grounds Blog



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