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ALPHA-GPC

Alpha-GPC
THE GIST

OVERVIEW

Alpha-GPC has been shown to dramatically increase brain energy with links to memory formation, learning capacity, and mental focus.

Alpha-GPC is a phospholipid that rapidly transports choline across the blood-brain barrier after ingestion and serves as a biosynthetic precursor for acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter. Due to its ability to directly boost acetylcholine levels, several studies have confirmed Alpha-GPC effectiveness in protecting the brain from age-related cognitive decline as well as increasing brain energy.

Several studies have shown that L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC) increases brain output in healthy adults as well as memory formation and learning capacity.

SYNONYMS

OTHER COMMON NAMES

Alpha-GPC, Glycerophosphocholine, Choline Alphoscerate, L-Alpha Glycerophosphocholine.

IN A NUTSHELL

What is alpha-gpc

Alpha-GPC is choline containing a phospholipid that can be used to augment the body and brain choline pool. In this role, it serves as a precursor for both acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Alpha-GPC and citicoline, i.e., CDP-choline, are considered the nootropic forms of choline, with both forms able to increase brain choline levels, act as building blocks for acetylcholine, and support choline-dependent neurotransmission [1–4]. However, of the two, Alpha-GPC contains a higher proportion of choline, so a lower dose of Alpha-GPC gives greater choline support than a similar dose of citicoline [5–7]. This means that by weight Alpha-GPC is the more effective choline precursor. Following an oral dose, Alpha-GPC metabolizes into choline and the phospholipid glycerophosphate. The choline can be used for acetylcholine synthesis and neurotransmission [3, 8–14]. Acetylcholine is central to brain neurotransmission; it’s also used in both the fight or flight and rest and relax parts of the autonomic nervous system, and it is a signaling molecule for activating muscles. Because Alpha-GPC is a precursor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, it plays a supportive role in a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, concentration, mental focus, and memory formation and recall [15]. Alpha-GPC also supports aspects of muscle performance and is involved in maintaining organs and tissues. Because Alpha-GPC can be readily metabolized into phosphatidylcholine, it can be used to support the structure and function of cell membranes. Alpha-GPC is found in low amounts in a variety of foods [16] and breast milk [17, 18]. Alpha-GPC is contained in many foods, such as oats, milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. However, the dosages are extremely far from the ones used in clinical studies.

Alpha-GPC energizes and enhances mental performance without the crash of stimulants. Alpha-GPC has been shown in human research to promote mood balance, memory, attention, focus, and concentration [19]. Long-term, it may help maintain healthy brain function against age-related structural changes and mental decline. MAXIMUM MIND® Alpha-GPC is working as a choline donor form with benefits for brain energy, mental performance, and recall backed by multiple human clinical trials [20-22].

alpha-gpc-graph
Alpha-GPC has been shown to boost brain cell membrane formation by 26% and brain energy by 13.6% [23]
SOURCE

MARCO'S GROUNDS ALPHA-GPC SOURCING

Alpha-GPC is a source of choline; it can influence both systemic and brain concentrations of choline.

Alpha-GPC is derived from soy. Marco’s Grounds uses full-spectrum Alpha-GPC that is sourced from organic, non-GMO, gluten-free, vegan, family-owned farms in the United States of America. Marco’s Grounds Alpha-GPC is extracted at purity standards of 99% +/- 0.5%.

DOSING

ALPHA-GPC DOSING PHILOSOPHY AND RATIONALE

Alpha-GPC is by weight one of the best sources of choline. While Alpha-GPC is often treated as if it’s dose-dependent, i.e., a higher dose is better. Doses of 1200 mg/day have been used in some clinical studies [23], Marco’s Grounds believes the evidence suggests a threshold response (see Marco’s Grounds Dosing Philosophy) when Alpha-GPC is given to healthy people. This means that more might not be better under all circumstances. As an example, in a study of healthy college-aged men, while the higher dose (500 mg/day) of Alpha-GPC did a better job increasing free choline levels, the lower dose (250 mg/day) produced a better peak muscle force response [24]. In general, Marco’s Grounds experience with Alpha-GPC (as well as citicoline) indicates that when used as part of comprehensive nootropic formulations, a more modest dose is often sufficient. Alpha-GPC is a useful choline source in liquids because of its taste and solubility. In general, the best time to take Alpha-GPC is early in the day.

ALPHA-GPC ROLE IN OUR FORMULATION

FOCUS
33.3%
MEMORY
100%
CLARITY
67%
MOOD
33%

ALPHA-GPC KEY MECHANISMS

Augments Choline Pool

Alpha-GPC is part of the CDP-choline (or Kennedy) pathway, which has a central role in choline homeostasis [13, 14]

Supports plasma choline levels [25]

Precursor for phosphatidylcholine synthesis [3]

Precursor for acetylcholine synthesis [2, 3]

Brain Function

Supports memory and learning [7, 32,40]

Supports attention [7, 40]

Supports cognition [2, 3, 15, 40, 41]

Supports acetylcholine synthesis and release [2, 3, 26]

Supports vesicular acetylcholine transporter levels [26, 27]

Supports high-affinity choline uptake transporter levels [27]

Protects from age-related changes in cholinergic neurotransmission [28]

Supports dopamine synthesis and release [1, 29]

Supports dopamine plasma membrane transporter (DAT) levels [29]

Supports serotonin synthesis [29]

Supports GABA release [30]

Supports phospholipid synthesis [9, 31]

Supports phosphoinositide synthesis [31, 32]

Supports protein kinase C (PKC) activation [33, 34]

Supports growth hormone secretion from the pituitary gland [10, 25, 35]

Counters some age-related brain microstructural changes [36–39]

Supports neuroprotective functions [2, 3]

Exercise Performance

Supports isometric force production [42]

Supports maximum power and velocity in jump movements [24]

Synergies

Citicoline, Uridine Monophosphate, Huperzine A, Bacopa Monnieri, Celastrus Paniculatus, Coleus Forskohlii, Vitamin B5 in supporting cholinergic neurotransmission

SIDE EFFECTS

Alpha-GPC side effects are few, rare, and mostly positive. Studies suggest one side effect of Alpha-GPC is increased power output [43], which shows the compound can improve physical strength and vitality as well as mental characteristics.

Other studies observed no adverse effect level with a dosage twice as high as MAXIMUM MIND® calibration in persons raging from 50 to 75 kilograms [44].

ALPHA-GPC DEEP DIVE

MAXIMUM-MIND-3D-view-large

MAXIMUM MIND®

Clinically Studied

Pharmaceutical Grade Cognitive and Mind Enhancing Complex
Made in Switzerland

References

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  2. Lopez, C. M., Govoni, S., Battaini, F., Bergamaschi, S., Longoni, A., Giaroni, C., & Trabucchi, M. (1991). Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 39(4), 8.
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  40. Parnetti, L., Amenta, F., & Gallai, V. (2001). Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 122(16), 2041-2055.
  41. Amenta, F., Carotenuto, A., Fasanaro, A. M., Rea, R., & Traini, E. (2012). The ASCOMALVA trial: association between the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the cholinergic precursor choline alphoscerate in Alzheimer’s disease with cerebrovascular injury: interim results. Journal of the neurological sciences, 322(1-2), 96-101.
  42. Bellar, D., LeBlanc, N. R., & Campbell, B. (2015). The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 1-6.
  43. Ziegenfuss, T., Landis, J., & Hofheins, J. (2008). Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5(S1), P15.
  44. Perri, R. D., Coppola, G., Ambrosio, L. A., Grasso, A., Puca, F. M., & Rizzo, M. (1991). A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of α-glycerylphosphorylcholine versus cytosine diphosphocholine in patients with vascular dementia. Journal of international medical research, 19(4), 330-341.
  45.