Alpha-GPC has been shown to dramatically increase brain energy with links to memory formation, learning capacity, and mental focus.
Alpha-GPC is a phospholipid that rapidly transports choline across the blood-brain barrier after ingestion and serves as a biosynthetic precursor for acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter. Due to its ability to directly boost acetylcholine levels, several studies have confirmed Alpha-GPC effectiveness in protecting the brain from age-related cognitive decline as well as increasing brain energy.
Several studies have shown that L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC) increases brain output in healthy adults as well as memory formation and learning capacity.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
Alpha-GPC, Glycerophosphocholine, Choline Alphoscerate, L-Alpha Glycerophosphocholine.
IN A NUTSHELL
What is alpha-gpc
Alpha-GPC is choline containing a phospholipid that can be used to augment the body and brain choline pool. In this role, it serves as a precursor for both acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Alpha-GPC and citicoline, i.e., CDP-choline, are considered the nootropic forms of choline, with both forms able to increase brain choline levels, act as building blocks for acetylcholine, and support choline-dependent neurotransmission [1–4]. However, of the two, Alpha-GPC contains a higher proportion of choline, so a lower dose of Alpha-GPC gives greater choline support than a similar dose of citicoline [5–7]. This means that by weight Alpha-GPC is the more effective choline precursor. Following an oral dose, Alpha-GPC metabolizes into choline and the phospholipid glycerophosphate. The choline can be used for acetylcholine synthesis and neurotransmission [3, 8–14]. Acetylcholine is central to brain neurotransmission; it’s also used in both the fight or flight and rest and relax parts of the autonomic nervous system, and it is a signaling molecule for activating muscles. Because Alpha-GPC is a precursor in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, it plays a supportive role in a variety of cognitive functions, including attention, concentration, mental focus, and memory formation and recall . Alpha-GPC also supports aspects of muscle performance and is involved in maintaining organs and tissues. Because Alpha-GPC can be readily metabolized into phosphatidylcholine, it can be used to support the structure and function of cell membranes. Alpha-GPC is found in low amounts in a variety of foods  and breast milk [17, 18]. Alpha-GPC is contained in many foods, such as oats, milk, cheese, yogurt, and eggs. However, the dosages are extremely far from the ones used in clinical studies.
Alpha-GPC energizes and enhances mental performance without the crash of stimulants. Alpha-GPC has been shown in human research to promote mood balance, memory, attention, focus, and concentration . Long-term, it may help maintain healthy brain function against age-related structural changes and mental decline. MAXIMUM MIND® Alpha-GPC is working as a choline donor form with benefits for brain energy, mental performance, and recall backed by multiple human clinical trials [20-22].
MARCO'S GROUNDS ALPHA-GPC SOURCING
Alpha-GPC is a source of choline; it can influence both systemic and brain concentrations of choline.
Alpha-GPC is derived from soy. Marco’s Grounds uses full-spectrum Alpha-GPC that is sourced from organic, non-GMO, gluten-free, vegan, family-owned farms in the United States of America. Marco’s Grounds Alpha-GPC is extracted at purity standards of 99% +/- 0.5%.
ALPHA-GPC DOSING PHILOSOPHY AND RATIONALE
Alpha-GPC is by weight one of the best sources of choline. While Alpha-GPC is often treated as if it’s dose-dependent, i.e., a higher dose is better. Doses of 1200 mg/day have been used in some clinical studies , Marco’s Grounds believes the evidence suggests a threshold response (see Marco’s Grounds Dosing Philosophy) when Alpha-GPC is given to healthy people. This means that more might not be better under all circumstances. As an example, in a study of healthy college-aged men, while the higher dose (500 mg/day) of Alpha-GPC did a better job increasing free choline levels, the lower dose (250 mg/day) produced a better peak muscle force response . In general, Marco’s Grounds experience with Alpha-GPC (as well as citicoline) indicates that when used as part of comprehensive nootropic formulations, a more modest dose is often sufficient. Alpha-GPC is a useful choline source in liquids because of its taste and solubility. In general, the best time to take Alpha-GPC is early in the day.
ALPHA-GPC ROLE IN OUR FORMULATION
ALPHA-GPC KEY MECHANISMS
Augments Choline Pool
Alpha-GPC is part of the CDP-choline (or Kennedy) pathway, which has a central role in choline homeostasis [13, 14]
Supports plasma choline levels 
Precursor for phosphatidylcholine synthesis 
Precursor for acetylcholine synthesis [2, 3]
Supports memory and learning [7, 32,40]
Supports attention [7, 40]
Supports cognition [2, 3, 15, 40, 41]
Supports acetylcholine synthesis and release [2, 3, 26]
Supports vesicular acetylcholine transporter levels [26, 27]
Supports high-affinity choline uptake transporter levels 
Protects from age-related changes in cholinergic neurotransmission 
Supports dopamine synthesis and release [1, 29]
Supports dopamine plasma membrane transporter (DAT) levels 
Supports serotonin synthesis 
Supports GABA release 
Supports phospholipid synthesis [9, 31]
Supports phosphoinositide synthesis [31, 32]
Supports protein kinase C (PKC) activation [33, 34]
Supports growth hormone secretion from the pituitary gland [10, 25, 35]
Counters some age-related brain microstructural changes [36–39]
Supports neuroprotective functions [2, 3]
Supports isometric force production 
Supports maximum power and velocity in jump movements 
Alpha-GPC side effects are few, rare, and mostly positive. Studies suggest one side effect of Alpha-GPC is increased power output , which shows the compound can improve physical strength and vitality as well as mental characteristics.
Other studies observed no adverse effect level with a dosage twice as high as MAXIMUM MIND® calibration in persons raging from 50 to 75 kilograms .
Pharmaceutical Grade Cognitive and Mind Enhancing Complex
Made in Switzerland
- Trabucchi, M., Govoni, S., & Battaini, F. (1986). Changes in the interaction between CNS cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons induced by L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a cholinomimetic drug. Il Farmaco; edizione scientifica, 41(4), 325-334.
- Lopez, C. M., Govoni, S., Battaini, F., Bergamaschi, S., Longoni, A., Giaroni, C., & Trabucchi, M. (1991). Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 39(4), 8.
- Sigala, S., Imperato, A., Rizzonelli, P., Casolini, P., Missale, C., & Spano, P. (1992). L-α-glycerylphorylcholine antagonizes scopolamine-induced amnesia and enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission. European journal of pharmacology, 211(3), 351-358.
- Muratorio, A., Bonuccelli, U., Nuti, A., Battistini, N., Passero, S., Caruso, V., … & Franciosi, A. (1992). A neurotropic approach to the treatment of multi-infarct dementia using L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine. Current therapeutic research, 52(5), 741-752.
- Sangiorgi, G. B., Barbagallo, M., Giordano, M., Meli, M., & Panzarasa, R. (1994). α‐Glycerophosphocholine in the Mental Recovery of Cerebral Ischemic Attacks: An Italian Multicenter Clinical Trial. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 717(1), 253-269.
- Gatti, G., Barzaghi, N., Acuto, G., Abbiati, G., Fossati, T., & Perucca, E. (1992). A comparative study of free plasma choline levels following intramuscular administration of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine and citicoline in normal volunteers. International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology, 30(9), 331-335.
- Parnetti, L., Mignini, F., Tomassoni, D., Traini, E., & Amenta, F. (2007). Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation?. Journal of the neurological sciences, 257(1-2), 264-269.
- Wurtman, R. J., Ulus, I. H., Cansev, M., Watkins, C. J., Wang, L., & Marzloff, G. (2006). Synaptic proteins and phospholipids are increased in the brain by administering uridine plus docosahexaenoic acid orally. Brain research, 1088(1), 83-92.
- Abbiati, G., Fossati, T., Lachmann, G., Bergamaschi, M., & Castiglioni, C. (1993). Absorption, tissue distribution and excretion of radiolabelled compounds after administration of [14 C]-l-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine. European journal of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics, 18(2), 173-180.
- Ceda, G. P., Marzani, G. P., Tontodonati, V., Piovani, E., Banchini, A., Baffoni, M. T., … & Hoffman, A. R. (1994). Effects of an acetylcholine precursor on GH secretion in elderly subjects. In Growth Hormone II (pp. 328-337). Springer, New York, NY.
- Fernández-Murray, J. P., & McMaster, C. R. (2005). Glycerophosphocholine catabolism as a new route for choline formation for phosphatidylcholine synthesis by the Kennedy pathway. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280(46), 38290-38296.
- Amenta, F., Tayebati, S. K., Vitali, D., & Di Tullio, M. A. (2006). Association with the cholinergic precursor choline alphoscerate and the cholinesterase inhibitor rivastigmine: an approach for enhancing cholinergic neurotransmission. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 127(2), 173-179.
- Li, Z., & Vance, D. E. (2008). Thematic review series: glycerolipids. Phosphatidylcholine and choline homeostasis. Journal of lipid research, 49(6), 1187-1194.
- Gibellini, F., & Smith, T. K. (2010). The Kennedy pathway—de novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. IUBMB life, 62(6), 414-428.
- Canal, N., Franceschi, M., Alberoni, M., Castiglioni, C., De Moliner, P., & Longoni, A. (1991). Effect of L-α-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine on amnesia caused by scopolamine. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Therapy and Toxicology, 29(3), 103-107.
- Zeisel, S. H., Mar, M. H., Howe, J. C., & Holden, J. M. (2003). Concentrations of choline-containing compounds and betaine in common foods. The Journal of nutrition, 133(5), 1302-1307.
- Holmes-McNary, M. Q., Cheng, W. L., Mar, M. H., Fussell, S., & Zeisel, S. H. (1996). Choline and choline esters in human and rat milk and in infant formulas. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 64(4), 572-576.
- Ilcol, Y. O., Ozbek, R., Hamurtekin, E., & Ulus, I. H. (2005). Choline status in newborns, infants, children, breast-feeding women, breast-fed infants and human breast milk. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 16(8), 489-499.
- Parker, A. G., Byars, A., Purpura, M., & Jäger, R. (2015). The effects of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, caffeine or placebo on markers of mood, cognitive function, power, speed, and agility. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(S1), P41.
- Shields, K. A., Silva, J. E., Rauch, J. T., Lowery, R. P., Ormes, J. A., Sharp, M. H., … & Jäger, R. (2014). The effects of a multi-ingredient cognitive formula on alertness, focus, motivation, calmness and psychomotor performance in comparison to caffeine and placebo. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 11(1), 1-2.
- Mastrogiacomo, F., Bergeron, C., & Kish, S. J. (1993). Brain α‐Ketoglutarate Dehydrotenase Complex Activity in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of neurochemistry, 61(6), 2007-2014.
- Hellweg, R., Nitsch, R., Hock, C., Jaksch, M., & Hoyer, S. (1992). Nerve growth factor and choline acetyltransferase activity levels in the rat brain following experimental impairment of cerebral glucose and energy metabolism. Journal of neuroscience research, 31(3), 479-486.
- Silveri, M. M., Dikan, J., Ross, A. J., Jensen, J. E., Kamiya, T., Kawada, Y., … & Yurgelun‐Todd, D. A. (2008). Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR in Biomedicine: An International Journal Devoted to the Development and Application of Magnetic Resonance In vivo, 21(10), 1066-1075.
- Marcus, L., Soileau, J., Judge, L. W., & Bellar, D. (2017). Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 14(1), 39.
- Kawamura, T., Okubo, T., Sato, K., Fujita, S., Goto, K., Hamaoka, T., & Iemitsu, M. (2012). Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults. Nutrition, 28(11-12), 1122-1126.
- Tayebati, S. K., Tomassoni, D., Di Stefano, A., Sozio, P., Cerasa, L. S., & Amenta, F. (2011). Effect of choline-containing phospholipids on brain cholinergic transporters. Journal of the neurological sciences, 302(1-2), 49-57.
- Tomassoni, D., Catalani, A., Cinque, C., Antonietta Di Tullio, M., Khosrow Tayebati, S., Cadoni, A., … & Amenta, F. (2012). Effects of cholinergic enhancing drugs on cholinergic transporters in the brain and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Current Alzheimer Research, 9(1), 120-127.
- Amenta, F., Franch, F., Ricci, A., & Vega, J. A. (1993). Cholinergic Neurotransmission in the Hippocampus: Influence of L‐α‐Glycerylphosphorylcholine Treatment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 695(1), 311-313.
- Khosrow Tayebati, S., Tomassoni, D., Ejike Nwankwo, I., Di Stefano, A., Sozio, P., Serafina Cerasa, L., & Amenta, F. (2013). Modulation of monoaminergic transporters by choline-containing phospholipids. CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-CNS & Neurological Disorders), 12(1), 94-103.
- Komatsu, H., Westerman, J., Snoek, G. T., Taraschi, T. F., & Janes, N. (2003). L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine inhibits the transfer function of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein α. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1635(2-3), 67-74.
- Aleppo, G., Nicoletti, F., Sortino, M. A., Casabona, G., Scapagnini, U., & Canonico, P. L. (1994). Chronic L‐α‐Glyceryl‐phosphoryl‐choline Increases Inositol Phosphate Formation in Brain Slices and Neuronal Cultures. Pharmacology & toxicology, 74(2), 95-100.
- Schettini, G., Ventra, C., Florio, T., Grimaldi, M., Meucci, O., Scorziello, A., … & Marino, A. (1992). Molecular mechanisms mediating the effects of L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine, a new cognition-enhancing drug, on behavioral and biochemical parameters. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 43(1), 139-151.
- Lucchi, L., Pascale, A., Battaini, F., Govoni, S., & Trabucchi, M. (1993). Cognition stimulating drugs modulate protein kinase C activity in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Life sciences, 53(24), 1821-1832.
- Govoni, S., Lucchi, L., Battaini, F., & Trabucchi, M. (1992). Protein kinase C increase in the brain cortical membranes may be promoted by cognition enhancing drugs. Life sciences, 50(16), PL125-PL128.
- Ceda, G. P., Ceresini, G., Denti, L., Marzani, G., Piovani, E., Banchini, A., … & Valenti, G. (1992). Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine administration increases the GH responses to GHRH of young and elderly subjects. Hormone and metabolic research, 24(03), 119-121.
- Amenta, F., del Valle, M., Vega, J., & Zaccheo, D. (1991). Age-related structural changes in the cerebellar cortex: effect of choline alfoscerate treatment. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 61(2), 173-186.
- Amenta, F., Bronzetti, E., Mancini, M., Vega, J., & Zaccheo, D. (1994). Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase in the hippocampus: sensitivity to choline alphoscerate treatment. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 74(1-2), 47-58.
- Amenta, F., Ferrante, F., Vega, J. A., & Zaccheo, D. (1994). Long term choline alfoscerate treatment counters age-dependent microanatomical changes. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, 18(5), 915-924.
- Muccioli, G., Raso, G. M., Ghé, C., & Di Carlo, R. (1996). Effect of L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine on muscarinic receptors and membrane microviscosity. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 20(2), 323-339.
- Parnetti, L., Amenta, F., & Gallai, V. (2001). Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 122(16), 2041-2055.
- Amenta, F., Carotenuto, A., Fasanaro, A. M., Rea, R., & Traini, E. (2012). The ASCOMALVA trial: association between the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the cholinergic precursor choline alphoscerate in Alzheimer’s disease with cerebrovascular injury: interim results. Journal of the neurological sciences, 322(1-2), 96-101.
- Bellar, D., LeBlanc, N. R., & Campbell, B. (2015). The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(1), 1-6.
- Ziegenfuss, T., Landis, J., & Hofheins, J. (2008). Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 5(S1), P15.
- Perri, R. D., Coppola, G., Ambrosio, L. A., Grasso, A., Puca, F. M., & Rizzo, M. (1991). A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of α-glycerylphosphorylcholine versus cytosine diphosphocholine in patients with vascular dementia. Journal of international medical research, 19(4), 330-341.